Formulating Greenhouse Gas Management Strategy E-mail
Tuesday, May 17, 2011

Formulating Greenhouse Gas Management Strategy

Chinese Taipei

2010

 

Carbon Emission Reduction Strategy

Between 1990 and 2008, Chinese Taipei's CO2 emissions from fuel consumption grew at an average rate of 4.8%. To address this issue, in December 2009, Conservation and Carbon Reduction Master Program was launched and interdepartmental coordination mechanisms were established to promote a wide range of actions to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions.

Chinese Taipei supports the Copenhagen Accord with a voluntary commitment to the target of at least 30% reduction by 2020 based on business-as-usual (BAU) of the total GHG emission volume. In addition, future emission reduction objectives will include passing basic legislation, implementing sect oral reductions, rationalizing energy prices, announcing emission caps, developing emission trading and carbon offset mechanisms, and enhancing education and publicity.

 

Current Status of Legislative Reforms Related to GHG Reduction

Current GHG reduction strategy involves endeavors in several different areas, such as passing basic legislative changes, devising market mechanisms, developing low carbon technology, enhancing international cooperation, and providing environmental education for the entire population. Mitigation actions that meet the principle of being measurable, reportable and verifiable (MRV) will be implemented to shape unique low-carbon society. Four laws serve as the legal foundations for the promotion of energy conservation and carbon reduction. The function of each legislation is as follows:

 

A. Energy Management Act

This amendment addresses the most effective and low-cost of GHG reduction actions by raising energy efficiency standards for household use products, motor vehicles and manufacturing machinery. The amendment increases stipulated penalties to elevate the effectiveness of enforcement of the act. It also aims to popularize energy-saving labeled products and green procurement, so that products and purchasing policies will mutually complement and reinforce each other.

 

B. Renewable Energy Development Act

This act establishes a fund to provide renewable energy producers with incentives for technological innovation and to lower costs. The act also adopts "feed-in tariffs" as pioneered in Germany, which provide a pricing structure and coordinated measures favorable for renewable energy. A precondition stipulates that no large net profits are to be made. Also, year by year the rates at which "feed-in" renewable energy is purchased by the main grid are reasonably lowered in such a way that government funds may not be needed to invigorate the renewable energy industry and to transform the composition of the energy grid. The development of renewable energy could thus raise employment opportunities and provide a boost to the economy.

 

C. Energy Tax Bill (Draft)

This act imposes taxes on oil, gas, coal and natural gas, provides incentives for consumers to purchase more energy efficient products, and increases opportunities for renewable energy sources to be put to use. The reaching of other goals will rely upon the market mechanism, to ensure the costs of energy sources and carbon reduction expenses are reflected in prices, and to rationalize energy prices.

 

D. Greenhouse Gas Reduction Bill (Draft)

It sets up interdepartmental government mechanisms to promote GHG reduction, and a model and instruments for executing GHG emission reductions. It will serve as an important legal foundation for lowering GHG emission levels in response to climate change. After the act is passed by the Legislative Yuan, a three-phase GHG reduction strategy will be drafted, based on integrating the resources of government departments, refining capacities to manage and customize GHG reductions, planning alignment with the international carbon trading system, and formulating administrative decrees related to the inventory, registration, validation, verification and reduction of emissions. This will accelerate the completion of capacity building and help gain international recognition for voluntary compliance to international norms.

 

Implementing the Industrial Carbon Reduction Strategy

A GHG Registration mechanism was established based on references to international norms, and in 2007 industrial inventory data began to be uploaded on the "GHG Emissions Registry", to help gain a clearer understanding of emissions. As of August 2010, 266 factories had reported data accounting for approximately 74.95% of CO2 emitted by the energy and industrial sector's fuel consumption.

In November 2009, the "Directives for GHG Validation and Verification Bodies Management, Environmental Protection Administration, Executive Yuan," was announced, specifying the regulations for application and renewal of GHG validation and verification bodies and related organizations. In 2010, the EPA has authorized three GHG validation and verification bodies.

Since 2004, voluntary emission reduction agreements have been signed with the iron and steel, concrete, photo electronic and semiconductor industries. To encourage and ensure these achievements, in September 2010," Implementing Principles for Early Greenhouse Gas Reduction Project and Offsetting, Environmental Protection Administration, Executive Yuan," were promulgated. Reduction credits will be issued according to these directives to serve the offset demands of Environmental Impact Assessments (EIA) or for a reserve to meet GHG emission standards or caps that come into effect in the future.

Other assistance given to industry to carry out GHG reductions includes a compilation of 148 Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) methodologies plus ongoing research into carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology, cultivation of carbon-fixing algae, and green electricity systems from around the world. These are explained in more detail below:

 

A. Carbon Capture and Storage Technology (CCS)

The International Energy Agency (IEA) projects that by 2050, CCS technology will account for 20%-30% of global carbon emission reduction capacity. Currently there are 141 CCS trials and commercialization projects taking place globally. Chinese Taipei has already planned a strategic alliance for CCS, involving technological research and development, establishment of relevant laws and regulations, and a promotion strategy. It is expected that CCS will be commercialized by 2020.

 

B. Cultivation of Carbon-Fixing Algae

Through photo synthesis, microalgae (green algae) absorb CO2 and transform it into carbohydrates. a related on-site experimental plan has been proposed, whose outcomes will serve as a basis for large-scale implementation.

 

C. Green Electricity Systems

Green electricity is generated by renewable energy sources. In twenty advanced countries including Japan, the UK, the USA, Australia, Switzerland and Belgium, green electricity is distinguished from conventionally generated electricity and is priced differently. Bureau of Energy has targeted green electricity systems for further research, evaluation and analysis, which will be used to assess the boosting of renewable energy sources.

 

All-citizens Carbon Reduction Actions

With the EPA's "All-Citizens' Action Plan for No Regrets Energy Saving and Carbon Reduction Measures", the public sector is taking the initiative to put energy saving and carbon reduction measures into practice, and encouraging all citizens to follow suit. The action plan also aims at fostering carbon reduction consciousness and awareness, and raising the potential of society at large to reduce emissions. Also launched under the plan was the ''Eco-life Web site." This website encourages members of the public to make an online declaration to reduce carbon emissions, which to date over one million and fifty thousand have signed. It also provides for online reporting of carbon reduction performance and sharing of energy saving and carbon reduction experiences via blogs, thus helping accelerate progressing towards a "low-carbon society."

 

Conclusion

We are committed to maintaining the natural beauty of this island and making the vision of sustainable development a reality. The whole community shares the responsibility to proactively address carbon emission reduction issues. Chinese Taipei will continue effectuating emission standards and total emission caps in a cost-effective and orderly manner, thereby mitigating its GHG emissions and impacts.

 

 
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