Philippines
Philippines: Harnessing Solar Energy for Off-grid Rural Electrification Email
Written by Katja Rauhala  Updated on 19 July 2009  

Photovoltaics is the most popular technology choice for off-grid rural electrification. In the Philippines, some major socio-economic programs of the government utilize photovoltaics to bring electric power and economic development in remote rural areas. The main advantage of PV over other renewable energy technologies is its virtually inexhaustible source of power, i.e., the sun. PV converts solar radiation directly into electricity. The geographical location of the Philippines enables it to harness solar energy because of high daily insolation, ranging from 3.5 to 5.2 kWh per square meter, and the low seasonal variation of solar radiation. The solar potential is greatest during the summer months of May to July when the sun is positioned over the Northern Hemisphere. Conversely, the months with the weakest sunlight are November to January.

In addition, PV systems are modular and can be employed for both small and large-scale power generation. High reliability, long lifetime, low maintenance cost and zero fuel requirement of PV modules have made the technology a viable and cost-effective option for remote site applications where the costs of grid extension and maintenance of conventional power supply systems are often prohibitive.

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Philippines: Harnessing Hydro Energy for Off-grid Rural Electrification Email
Written by Katja Rauhala  Updated on 19 July 2009  

Hydro power is considered the largest and most mature application of renewable energy. The installed capacity worldwide is estimated at 630,000 MW, producing over 20 percent of the world’s electricity. In the European Union, hydro power contributes at least 17 percent to its electricity supply. Translated in terms of environmental costs, the hydro installations in the European Union are instrumental in avoiding 67 million tons of CO2 emissions annually.

There is yet no international consensus on how to classify hydro systems by size. The European Small Hydro Association however has included in the definition of small hydro those systems with capacity up to 10 MW. The Philippines has adapted the European nomenclature, but further breaks down “small” systems into “mini” and “micro.” RA 7156 defines mini-hydro systems as those installations with size ranging from 101 kW to 10MW. By inference, microhydro systems refer to installations with capacity of 100 kW or less.

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Philippines: Harnessing Biomass for Off-grid Rural Electrification Email
Written by Katja Rauhala  Updated on 19 July 2009  

Biomass is a versatile source of energy; it can produce electricity, heat or fuel for transportation and is storable. It is the world’s fourth largest energy source and contributes to at least 14 percent of the world’s primary energy demand. In developing countries, the contribution of biomass to primary energy supply is at least 35 percent. In developed economies, such as the European Union, its contribution ranges from 2 to 14 percent.

The Philippines has abundant agricultural residues that are suitable for power generation. The EC-ASEAN COGEN Programme estimated that the volume of residues from rice, coconut, palm oil, sugar and wood industries is 16 million tons per year. Bagasse, coconut husks and shell can account for at least 12 percent of total national energy supply. The World Bank-Energy Sector Management Assistance Program estimated that residues from sugar, rice and coconut could produce 90 MW, 40 MW, and 20 MW, respectively.

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OECD Trade and Environment Working Paper No. 2006-02, Hight & Ferrier Email
Written by Katja Rauhala  Updated on 19 July 2009  

Joint Working Party on Trade and Environment: The Impact Of Monitoring Equipment On Air Quality Management Capacity In Developing Countries: OECD Trade and Environment Working Paper No. 2006-02: Reflecting the desire for cleaner air, many developing countries have enacted clean air laws similar to those of developed nations, although to date most of these laws have been poorly enforced. A key starting point to better enforcement is obtaining comprehensive and reliable air-quality monitoring data. This report explores the impacts of air quality monitoring programmes implemented over the last decade in five developing countries: Morocco, the Philippines, Malaysia, Indonesia, and India. These case studies also examine the role of procurement of specialised equipment, usually imported, associated with the various air quality monitoring programmes.

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The Global Environmental Industry and Relationship to Monitoring & Compliance in Developing Nations Email
Written by Grant Ferrier  Updated on 19 July 2009  

Summary presentation from OECD-funded project to identify and profile examples of monitoring & compliance programs involving imports of environmental goods & services.

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